what is the step TAKING ONLINE (HOT) BACKUPS (UNIX) ?

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To take online backups the database should be running in Archivelog mode. To check whether the database is running in  Archivelog mode or Noarchivelog mode. Start sqlplus and then connect as SYSDBA.

After connecting give the command "archive log list" this will show you the status of archiving.

$ sqlplus
Enter User:/ as sysdba

If the database is running in archive log mode then you can take online backups.

Let us suppose we want to take online backup of  "USERS" tablespace. You can query the V$DATAFILE view to find out the name of datafiles associated with this tablespace. Lets suppose the file is

"/u01/ica/usr1.dbf ".

Give the following series of commands to take online backup of USERS tablespace.

$ sqlplus
Enter User:/ as sysdba
SQL> alter tablespace users begin backup;
SQL> host cp /u01/ica/usr1.dbf   /u02/backup
SQL> alter tablespace users end backup;
SQL> exit;
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